Extensive glossary of food manufacturing, science and technology. Galactose: Monosaccharide occurring in both levo (L) and dextro (D) forms as a constituent of plant and animal oligosaccharides (lactose and raffinose) and polysaccharides (agar and pectin). Galactose is the sugar derived from digesting lactose (‘milk sugar”).
Galacturonic acid: Constituent of the pectin molecule.
Ganache: Ganache is a chocolate mixture made by boiling cream and combining chopped semisweet chocolate then stirring until smooth. Ganache can be used as a cake glaze or beaten until fluffy and used as a filling or as the base for truffles and other chocolate confections.
Glucono-delta-lactone: Transforms slowly into gluconic acid and thus retards the lowering of the pH and of gelation respectively.
Gel power: Measure of the ability of the pectin to gel a sugar solution.
Gelatinization: Swelling and rupturing of starch grains due to heat and of starch moisture.
Gelling agents: Used to form a jelly so providing texture to a product.
Gelling speed: Time after which the gelation starts at a defined temperature.
Gelling sugar: For producing jams and jellies in the household. Composition: sugar, pectin, acid.
Gelling temperature: Temperature at which the gelling starts during cooling.
Glazes: Glazes are used to give desserts a smooth and/or shiny finish. Cake glazes can be water icing, melted chocolate in combination with cream, butter and/or sugar syrup, or fondant.
Glucogenesis: Synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources such as fats or proteins. This occurs when the glycogen supply in the liver is exhausted.
Glucose: Monosaccharide sugar originating in plants and used in animals to carry energy throughout the body, just as sucrose is the main carrier of energy throughout the plant. It is prepared industrially by the hydrolysis of starch. (See Sucrose).
Glucose syrup: Decomposed starch syrup, containing various types of sugar.
Glutamate: An amino acid. It is necessary for metabolism and brain function, and is manufactured by the body. Glutamate is found in virtually every protein food we eat. In food, there is "bound" glutamate and "free" glutamate. Glutamate serves to enhance flavours in foods when it is in its free form and not bound to other amino acids in protein. Some foods have greater quantities of glutamate than others. Foods that are rich in glutamate include tomatoes, mushrooms, parmesan cheese, milk and mackerel.
Gluten: Grotein found in wheat that gives the characteristic crumb structure to bread.
Glycemic Index: Ranks foods on how they affect blood glucose levels in the two or three hours after eating. Carbohydrates with high GI numbers increase blood sugar rapidly. Carbohydrates that produce a lower more constant insulin response within the body are termed low GI foods and usually possess numbers under 60.
Glycerin: Syrupy type of alcohol derived from sugar which is used in food flavourings to maintain desired food consistency.
Glycerol: Colourless, odourless, syrupy liquid chemically, an alcohol, that is obtained from fats and oils and used to retain moisture and add sweetness to foods.
Glycogen: Like starch, this is a polysaccharide of glucose, but found in animals instead of plants. This is the form in which glucose is stored in muscles and in the liver.
GMO (Genetically Altered Organism): The transfer of genetic material from one organism to another. Can include transgenic, but also refers to genes altered within the same species.
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, GMPs): System of ensuring a safe environment in which to carry out the processing of food. This includes: ensuring that rodents, birds and insects cannot enter the facility, ensuring that light bulbs are not exposed, ensuring that open vats cannot be contaminated from overhead, etc.
Grading: Sorting of unlike lots of the same product into uniform categories, according to quality standards.
Granulated Sugar: Used to describe ordinary table sugar as it is most commonly used in the household and in industry. This particular sugar is a disaccharide sucrose, produced in all green plants.
GRAS - Generally Recognized as Safe: Substances added to foods that have been shown to be safe based on a long history of common usage in food.
Gray: Unit that measures the radiation dose (Gy). International health and safety authorities have endorsed the safety of irradiation for all foods up to a dose level of 10,000 Gy (10 kGy). One gray equals one joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of food being irradiated.
Guar gum: Substance made from the endosperm of seeds of the guar plant which acts as a stabilizer in food systems. Is found as a food additive in cheese, including processed cheese, ice cream and dressings. Provides products with high viscosities.
Gumming: Formation and accumulation of a fat insoluble sticky material resulting from continued heating of fats and oils. The gummy material is produced by oxidation and polymerization of the fat and represents fat breakdown products which collect on heating surfaces.
Gypsum: Common mineral sometimes added to water to make it simulate high-quality British brewing water.
Gyrofrequency: Frequency at which the ions revolve in a magnetic field.
HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point): System based on science and logic which identifies potential biological, chemical and physical hazards in food production and establishes preventative measures for their control and to ensure nothing to affect the safety of the product happens at these points. A plan outlining this system for a food production process is called a HACCP plan.
Hard butter: Generic term to describe a class of specialty fats with physical characteristics similar to those found in cocoa butter or dairy butter. Applications include confectionery coatings and centers, coffee whiteners, etc.
Hazard: Unacceptable contamination (of a biological, chemical, or physical nature), unacceptable microbial growth, or unacceptable survival of microorganisms of a concern to food safety, or persistence is present.
HDPE: High-density polyethylene.
Head: Foam at the top of beer caused by carbonation. Foams vary greatly between beer styles.
Headspace: Unfilled space above food or liquid in jars. Allows for food expansion as jars are heated, and for forming vacuums as jars cool.
Heat processing: Treatment of jars with sufficient heat to enable storing food at normal home temperatures.
Heat resistancy: Heat stability of jams during baking.
Heat reversibility: Ability of a gel to form again after being liquefied by heating.
Heat sealing: Method of sealing plastic containers by heating two adjoining layers or portions of the container until they melt together thereby forming a good seal.
Hermetic seal: Absolutely airtight container seal which prevents reentry of air or microorganisms into packaged foods.
Heterogeneous magnetic fields: Magnetic field that exhibits a gradient depending on the nature of the magnet
High-fructose corn syrup: Formulations generally containing 42 percent, 55 percent or 90 percent fructose (the remaining carbohydrate being primarily glucose) depending on the product application. Used in products such as soft drinks or cake mixes.
High pressure processing: High-pressure processing is a novel non-thermal technique in which pressures up to 130 kpsi for hold times of 0.001 to 1200 seconds or longer are employed to pasteurize food at ambient or refrigerator temperatures.
High risk foods: Foods that are capable of transmitting food poisoning micro-organisms to consumers.
High voltage electrical impulse: Application of high voltage discharges to a liquid medium in a very short time.
High voltage switch: Device used to trigger the delivery of high intensity light pulses to foods or packaging materials.
HM pectins: High-Methoxyl pectins.
Homocysteine: Amino acid that is produced as a byproduct of the metabolism of one-carbon compounds. Excessive accumulation of this substance in the bloodstream has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease.
Homogeneous magnetic fields: Magnetic field with a constant strength over space.
Homogeneous material: Material which does not exhibit spatial variation in composition
Homogenise: Process in which the size of the fat globules is reduced to small uniform particles, which are then distributed evenly throughout the liquid. For example, the cream in homogenised milk is distributed throughout the liquid rather than rising to the top to form a layer.
Hop sock (grain bag): Bag that holds grains during a boil, very much like a large teabag.
Hops: Cone shaped flowers used in brewing. Hops act as a flavouring agent in beer, adding aroma, sweetness and bitterness. They also help in head retention.
Host: Human, animal, or plant in which another organism lives and nourishes itself.
Hot Pack: Heating of raw food in boiling water or steam and filling it hot into jars.
Hot Smoked: Cooking and smoking cycles are combined. Smoking process takes place during the early portion of the cook cycle. Specific time/temperature requirements apply depending on the type of meat being hot smoked.
Household gelling aid: For producing jams and jellies in the household. Composition: pectin, acid, sugar. The bulk of the sugar must be added separately.
HTST: high temperature/short-time processing. A process by which food is sterilised at very high temperatures but only for a very short period.
Humectants:: Used to retain moisture in foods by absorbing water from the air to prevent drying out.
Humidity: Amount of water vapour in air.
Hurdle Technology: Method of inhibiting or terminating microbial growth and reproduction. Up to now, about 50 different hurdles have been identified in food preservation. Apart from the most important and commonly used hurdles such as temperature, pH, and water activity, there are many others of potential value. Other hurdles include: ultrahigh pressure, mano-thermo-sonication, photodynamic inactivation, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of both non-respiring and respiring products, edible coatings, ethanol, maillard reaction products and bacteriocins.
HVAC: Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems.
Hydrogenated fat (oil): Fat which has been reacted chemically with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst for the purpose of stabilizing or hardening the original fat. The hydrogen reduces the degree of unsaturation of the fat.
Hydrogenation: Process of adding hydrogen molecules directly to an unsaturated fatty acid from sources such as vegetable oils to convert it to a semi-solid form such as margarine or shortening. Hydrogenation contributes important textural properties to food. The degree of hydrogenation influences the firmness and spreadability of margarines, flakiness of pie crust and the creaminess of puddings. Hydrogenated oils are sometimes used in place of other fats with higher proportions of saturated fatty acids such as butter or lard.
Hydrolysis: Chemical reaction of another substance with water, resulting in fragmentation or splitting of the molecules of that substance, for example the splitting of the sucrose molecule into glucose and fructose molecules.
Hydrometer: Instrument that measures specific gravity of liquids, used to measure salt, sugar or alcohol concentration.
Hygiene: 1. preservation of health: the science dealing with the preservation of health. 2. cleanliness: the practice or principles of cleanliness.
Identity preserved production: Food production where the output of an individual farm is uniquely identified through the food system.
Impervious: Forms an impassable barrier.
Imitation cheese: Made from vegetable oil; it is less expensive, but also has less flavour and doesn't melt well.
Inclusion particle: Food particle of significantly different electrical conductivity than its surroundings.
Information Panel (IP): Label panel immediately to the right of the principal display panel. Nutritional labeling, ingredient listing and manufacturer information are displayed here.
Inhmogeneous material: Material which exhibits spatial variation in composition
In-line field: Ohmic heating system where the electric field is aligned along the product flow path.
Input voltage: Voltage (kV) supplied from a DC power source.
Insoluble fiber: Type of dietary fiber found in wheat bran, cauliflower, cabbage and other vegetables and fruits which helps move foods through the digestive system and thereby may decrease the risks of cancers of the colon and rectum. Insoluble fiber may also help reduce the risk of breast cancer. Inspection>: Activity such as measuring, examining, testing, or gauging one or more characteristics of an entity and comparing the results with specified requirements in order to establish whether conformity is achieved for each characteristic.
Integrated pest management: Coordinated use of pest and environmental information along with available pest control methods, including cultural, biological, genetic and chemical methods, to prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage using the most economical means, and with the least possible hazard to people, property and the environment.
Intensifier: Device for delivering high pressure process liquid generally by using a large diameter low pressure piston to drive a small diameter high pressure piston. The ratio of intensification is directly proportional to the ratio of the area of the large diameter piston divided by the area of the small diameter piston. A 20:1 intensification ratio is common. The pressure in the low pressure cylinder may be used to estimate the pressure of the high pressure process liquid. Intensifiers may be operated as single or multiple stroke devices. Single stroke intensifiers may be used to control the decompression rate of an HPP system.
Interesterfication: Process permitting the random rearrangement of the fatty acids in the triglyceride molecules and is widely used in the manufacture of lauric specialty fats for the purpose of changing the chemical properties of the fat.
Internal energy generation: Heat generation within a material and throughout its volume due to the presence of an energy source that is dissipated throughout the volume (see also volumetric heating).
Internal temperature: Temperature of the internal portion of food product.
Interstitial fluid motion: Motion of fluid in the spaces between solid particles.
Inversion: Hydrolysis of saccharose while cooking, saccharose alters to inverted sugar (fructose and glucose) thus reducing crystallization.
Invert sugar: Mixture of glucose and fructose, normally prepared by the hydrolysis of sucrose, or inversion. Invert sugars help baked goods retain moisture and prolong shelf-life. Candy manufacturers use invert sugar to control graining. Invert sugar is some 10% sweeter than the equivalent amount of sucrose.
Iodine Value (IV): Degree of unsaturation of a fat. Usually the oxidative stability of an oil increases as the iodine value is lowered.
Ionizing radiation:Rays of energy that move in short, fast wave patterns and can penetrate cells.
Irradiate: Expose to, or treat, with radiation.
Irradiation: Use of radiation in food processing to lengthen shelf life by eliminating pathogenic microorganisms.
ISO 9000: International standards for quality management and quality assurance set by the International Standards Organization, including three standards: 9001 for design/development production, installation and servicing, 9002 for production, installation and final product inspection, 9003 for final product inspection and testing.
ISO: International Standards Organization.
Isoflavones: Type of phytoestrogen found in soybeans and soy-based foods which may reduce menopause symptoms.
Isostatic Principle: Transmission of pressure is uniform and instantaneous; independent of the size and geometry of the food.
IU (International Unit): Measure of biological vitamin activity, used for vitamins A, D, and E.
JECFA: Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (FAO/WHO).
Jerky: Typically prepared from strips of lean muscle cut with the muscle fiber grain. Seasoned with marinade or rubbed with salt & pepper mixture. Shelf-stable, ready-to-eat. USDA regulated moisture protein ratio max. of 0.75.
k, reaction rate constant (first-order): Slope of the logarithm of survivor ratio (log S) versus time of treatment for the microbial population.
Karl Fischer titration: Titration method for determining the water content of samples using a pair of platinum electrode and a reagent containing iodine, sulfur dioxide, pyridine, and methanol. A polarizing current is applied to the electrodes and the resultant potential is measured. Most pH/mv meters are equipped on the rear panel with a pair of connectors which provide a 10 microampere current continuously during the titration.
Keeping Quality: General resistance of a fat or food product to any undesirable change during normal storage and usage periods. Thus, good keeping quality of fat means resistance to oxidative rancidity, hydrolysis and development of off-flavours and odours.
Kippered Meats: Similar to jerky but with a moisture protein ratio of 2.03 or lower. Not shelf-stable without further controls such as vacuum packaging or heat processing.
Knead: Press (esp. mixture for making bread) firmly and repeatedly with the hands and fingers, to shape dough or flour mixture by hand.
Lacto-ovo-vegetarian: Person who does not eat meat, poultry, or fish but eats eggs and dairy products as well as foods of plant origin.
Lactobacillus: Type of prebiotic/probiotic found in yogurt and some other dairy products which may improve gastrointestinal health.
Lactose: Also known as "milk sugar". Occurs to a level of 4-5% in milk. Its sweetness is approximately 30% that of table sugar. On hydrolysis yields glucose and galactose.
Laminate: Combine two or more layers of material to form packaging. The layers are held together by an adhesive or heat bonding.
Lauric Fats: Lauric Fats typically contain 40-50% lauric acid in a combination with lesser amounts of other relatively low molecular weight fatty acids. These fats are obtained from various species of the oil palm.
Layout: Arrangement of physical facilities and equipment within an area.
Leaven: Add a substance to (bread and other things made with flour) to make it get bigger when it is cooked. Yeast is added to yeast-leavened bread to make it rise and increase in volume.
Lecithin: Phosphatides naturally occurring in oil from both plants and animals. Lecithin is capable of forming colloidal solutions in water and possesses emulsifying, wetting and antioxidant properties.
Lignans: Type of phytoestrogen found in flax, rye and various vegetables which may provide the health benefits of lowering LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides thereby protecting against heart disease and some cancers.
Liquid crystals: Materials, which have properties that are useful for thermal sensing. Liquid crystals typically change colour with temperature.
Liquid Smoke: Approved smoke that has been distilled onto a liquid carrier for application to a food product.
Listeria: Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium, found in at least 37 mammalian species, as well as 17 species of birds and possibly some fish and shellfish. The bacteria can be isolated from soil, and is resistant to heat, freezing and drying. Listeria has been associated with foods such as raw milk, soft-ripened cheeses, ice cream, raw vegetables, raw and cooked poultry, raw meat and raw and smoked fish. Unlike other pathogenic bacteria, such as salmonella, listeria can survive and grow at temperatures as low as 5°C (41°F).
LM pectins: Low-Methoxyl pectins.
Low fat cocoa: Cocoa powder composed of less than 10% cocoa butter.
Low-acid foods: Foods which contain very little acid and have a pH above 4.6. The acidity in these foods is insufficient to prevent the growth of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Vegetables, some tomatoes, figs, all meats, fish, seafoods, and some dairy foods are low acid. To control all risks of botulism, jars of these foods must be (1) heat processed in a pressure canner, or (2) acidified to a pH of 4.6 or lower before processing in boiling water.
Lutein: Type of carotenoid found in most green vegetables which positively contributes to maintenance of eye vision.
Lycopene: Carotenoid related to the better known beta-carotene. Lycopene gives tomatoes and some other fruits and vegetables their distinctive red colour. Nutritionally, it functions as an antioxidant. Research shows lycopene is best absorbed by the body when consumed as tomatoes that have been heat-processed using a small amount of oil. This includes products such as tomato sauce and tomato paste.
Lysine: Essential, basic amino acid obtained from many proteins by hydrolysis.